The disabled access is the ability for people with disabilities to access a physical or information.
The government has provided a definition of accessibility:
“Accessibility allows autonomy and participation of people with disabilities, reducing or even eliminating, the discrepancies between the capacities, needs and desires on the one hand, and the different physical components, their organizational and cultural environment on the other. Access requires the implementation of the additional elements necessary for any person permanently or temporarily unable to move and free access and security of life and all places, services, products and activities. Society, involved in this effort of accessibility, also advances the quality of life of all its members. “
Access to a physical location for a physically disabled person. For example, for a disabled person in a wheelchair, the presence of one or more steps makes it impossible to access certain sites, it is necessary to have a sloping ramp or a lift
Availability of information for a sensory disability. For example, a visually impaired can not read a written text normal, you will need it in large letters on a contrasting background or a blind converted into spoken words or text in Braille. A hearing impaired who watches television can not hear the dialogue, it will be necessary to have a subtitle (or someone speaking in French Sign Language). In these two cases, the solution Braille or sign language is seductive, but incomplete: some blind people do not know Braille well; some deaf people do not know sign language.
In France, in October 2005, there have been many articles (in the media, newspapers and television) on the disabled, for example, access to railway stations, disabled sports, football for the blind , physically disabled golf.
According to the regulations, there is the Order of 1 August 2006 and its various modifications for accessibility for people with mobility to establishments open to the public (ERP) and public use facilities (IOP) units are also involved. Any building permit for an ERP / IOP must consist of a specific folder (Plans and Instructions) to meet regulatory requirements.
In Europe, 2003
The EU decided in December 2001 that 2003 is European Year of Disabled Persons.
Generally refers to accessibility of all economic opportunities, material, instrumental, cultural or social available to a disabled person
Access to a physical location
For a physically disabled person
The disabled access is a public issue on the agenda of the French government since 1975 through the adoption of Law No. 75-534 of 30 June 1975 orientation for people with disabilities.
Two sections of the Act include provisions relating to the built environment (Article 49) and transport (Article 45). A process of progressive adaptation of life was initiated.
Each new construction of buildings open to the public, dwelling buildings and workplaces hosting more than 20 people had to be accessible. The work in these buildings would be an opportunity for development.
The legal obligation on transport was much weaker: the framework law of 30 June 1975 referred to decrees. An interdepartmental group with representatives from the French ministries, associations of persons with disabilities, transport operators and manufacturers decided in 1977 that the goal was unrealistic of the law for all persons with disabilities. It defines two types of technical solutions for two distinct populations:
Development of transport services for people with disabilities self, the creation of specialized services for people with disabilities with non-autonomous wheelchair were stereotypes.
In the 1970s, the development of ways to access conventional public transport was only one of several means (taxis, transport specialist operating in transport demand, promotion of the private car) to increase the mobility of people with disabilities.
French policy was reformed in 2005 by the Disability Act which requires the implementation of the accessibility of life (public buildings, conventional transport) by 2015.
In addition, Law No. 2009-323 of 25 March 2009 (known Boutin Act or Act Molle) allows French administration to waive the rules of the planning document for the work necessary to allow access for people with disabilities an existing dwelling.
Cars and People With Disabilities
There are also cars adapted to certain physical disabilities. In the past, the brand DAF manufactured cars are best suited for some minor physical disabilities.
In Prague, an example of a handicapped parking pass with Physics dedicated to the sidewalk.
Today, there are different adjustments for physical disabilities of all kinds, and technology has evolved so that it is now possible to drive a vehicle, even for someone with small upper and very little force, for example using a small wheel or joystick (joystick) the latter solution is not accepted in all countries. But in this case, there remains the small-wheel, kind of disc the size of a small plate with a handle (like the wheel of a construction vehicle). This system is directly connected to the steering column and is one with the real wheel of the car. All with a steering pushed to its maximum. So with little strength and with very small movements, it is possible to direct the vehicle in the same way as a normal drive.
It is necessary that a car parking of motor vehicles are reserved for people with disabilities carry the European card “GIC-GIG” and these places should be larger (3.30 m) to allow disabled people in wheelchairs out of their vehicle. The government has introduced regulations that, especially in France.
The Train and the Disabled
Such devices: wagon lift to transport a wheelchair from the dock to the train (TGV or other)
Businesses and People with Disabilities
1 January 2015, all public buildings (ERP) should be able to accommodate all persons with disabilities, regardless of the nature of it (motor, auditory, visual or mental). Less than four years of the deadline, and while the period of 10 years left to institutions to comply with accessibility rules might seem reasonable, many operators are still not making the adjustments required.
Representation of the Problem to the General Public
In the episode “The Wheelchair” (# 18) of the U.S. series So Little to Mary-Kate Olsen and Ashley Olsen , one of the twins posing as a disabled wheelchair and indignant in the number of inaccessible restaurants the disabled. This is one of the few movies where this problem is discussed.
For visually impaired
All schools affiliated to the French Federation of Associations of Guide Dogs (FFAC) call free guide dogs to blind them so request.
On the banks of Metro, the band podotactiles the edge of platforms enable visually impaired to get some distance from the dock.
For the metro in Paris, there are relief maps in some stations, for use by blind people.
The tramway is a means of transport more accessible for the disabled as the metro and buses.
Children with disabilities
Access to a school, a nursery or a holiday resort.
Example: In Canada, the Society for Disabled Children has a center and a resort (the center Papillon) for children with disabilities.
Primary and Autism
For some cases of autism, it is possible to put them in school, but a person may need to help them and give them access to education. This already exists in France.
Access to Information
For a blind
There are machines to read. A reading machine combines a scanner that scans printed text, software, optical character recognition (OCR) that converts text image provided by the scanner and a voice synthesizer which reproduces sound in a text. Some libraries are equipped with such machines (e.g. the library of the Association Valentin-Hauy Beaugrenelle or library managed by the mayor of Paris). The manual for these machines is written in Braille.
Eticode: the bar code in the service of people with disabilities
Given the widespread use of bar codes in the retail sector, it has been undertaken to implement this technique to facilitate access to information by blind people and, more broadly, for those prevented to read printed materials. This project Eticode, The principle is that the blind person uses a barcode reader to read the bar code standards placed on all items of trade and thus access to product information. Combined with the ability to print low-cost ordinary labels for marking all kinds of items and / or personal documents, such use of bar codes enables the Blind.
- Recognizing the everyday consumer items,
- Organize their personal belongings,
- Archive and retrieve documents,
- Take charge of their health (identification of medicine boxes, access to online data).
For Visually Impaired
There is Video Magnifier to magnify a document (text or image). The person can adjust the magnification factor. There is self-Video Magnifier and other connected to a computer. Some libraries are equipped with this device (e.g. the library of the Association Valentin Hauy- Vaugirard or library managed by the mayor of Paris).
For Hearing Impaired
Several jurisdictions French 6 have established hotlines video-interpretation, that is to say, a video conference with an interpreter graduate. This system allows deaf and hearing impaired, communicating in sign language, to appear without an appointment to administrative procedures and collect information in the same way that the public hearing. In addition, in the workplace, are the solution offered by the relay centers (including Websourd or Tadeo). With these platforms, a deaf or hearing impaired employee can make and receive phone calls, participate in business meetings and attend professional training courses. Whatever the mode of communication chosen by the deaf or hard of hearing (sign language or instant transcription of speech), the words of the hearing person resulted in a video-interpreter or transcribed written through to operator in stenotype or voice recognition. This system is completely remote and guarantees the full transcript of the speech in full transparency.
Disability law of 11 February 2005 applies to public and private services that must be accessible to persons with disabilities in general and those deaf in particular. Based on the same principle as the solution or Websourd Tadeo, systems Acceo and Elision enable companies and public services to meet their legal obligations and to make available to their customers or users who are deaf and / or hearing impaired.
It is necessary that programs from television to be captioned. In France, the second string, it has existed for many years a newscast with a person at the background that translates sign language.
Access To A Computer
There is a need for website designers provide for the accessibility of web content. The same goes for software developers.
There are a multitude of keyboards or keyboard equivalents based on very different handicaps that exist (with visual, motor and mental).
It is also necessary that disabled people can use a computer: for the visually impaired, they exist for screen readers, paying (the software Jaws is the best known) or free (NVDA or No Access Desktop Video). The most ambitious and most attractive Orca is a Linux system for integrating accessibility magnifier, a screen reader, keyboard with sticky keys. KMouth also exists, allowing a vocalize written text; this is for people with speech deficiencies.
For epileptic photosensitive, the fact of working time on a screen can have negative effects. This does a certain type of epilepsy.
In the U.S., the section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 regulates the accessibility of federal sites for the disabled.