The vegetative propagation is a method of asexual reproduction that produces clones, in contrast to the reproduction of new individuals, which gives (with a new Heritage Genetics).
Vegetative propagation is primarily a natural phenomenon and often has long been used by man to clone plants (cuttings, layering), and more recently by in vitro culture. It is the basis for much biotechnology plant.
These forms of vegetative propagation is a fast and efficient way to invade a middle ground or other colonized by life (water, rocks ..), but with the risk that these crops are ravaged by an herbivore or pathogen that is adapted to .
Vegetative propagation is a natural process found mainly in herbaceous and woody plants, and is mostly involved structural changes of the stem, the roots may also contribute to vegetative propagation and in some species, and the leaves are used. The new plants are clones of the mother plant; you can not talk about reproduction. The new plants are new individuals; the process appears to reset the “clock cells” of the plant.
Techniques of fragmentation of the body
Cuttings are a method of vegetative propagation of certain plants of giving birth to a new individual (child of the individual mother plant) from one organ or body fragment isolated. It is a clone: the cutting is genetically identical to the parent plant. Cuttings are through cellular dedifferentiation at the meristem. The cuttings may be natural or artificially induced (by gardeners or nursery).
The layering is a technique of vegetative propagation to multiply a plant by placing a branch still attached to the foot of the mother plant in the substrate moist. This technique can be practiced for many climbers included as an example: ivy, Virginia creeper, and jasmine. The plant obtained by this technique will be genotypically identical to the mother plant from which it originates.
The grafting is a technique of vegetative propagation by doing a transplant that is to say to put a graft from a plant in another plant called rootstock for qualities in the plant. Warning: the two plants should be the same botanical family.
Formation Of Specialized Organs
These are horizontal underground stems growing with leaves reduced to scales on which the buds appear. These are permanent structures (living several years), which often adventitious roots. They differ in that much of the tubers.
The stolons are horizontal stems growing (at ground level) and whose leaves are reduced to scales, the terminal bud is rooted and gives a new individual, and the individuals remain attached to each other by stolon at least temporarily. Runners must be cut once the roots are well trained if you want a good result for the next fruit.
Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca), saxifrage bentgrass (Saxifraga stolonifera), dwarf Pilea (Pilea pumila)
Oyat (Ammophila arenaria )
The bulbils are buds adventitious accumulating reserves and providing vegetative propagation.
Some plants emit young plants on the sides called “waste “,” suckers “or” suckers “if they grow from roots. Plants of the family of Bromeliads, for example, emit discharges during flowering, as they die from it.
The keikis are small plants that appear on the flower heads of certain orchids.
Eg butterfly orchids (Phalaenopsis)
These are small rounded masses of cells produced in baskets propagules. These bodies are found in Bryophytes and Chromista.
In some algae fragment of a thallus may become detached and give a whole individual. This fragment is called colonial hormogonie.